Poor Linguistic Ability May Indicate Risk of Alzheimer's


Неспособность к языкам и болезнь Альцгеймера

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We Americans love our fast food. And a new study shows that a little thing like a nutrition label is not gonna stop us when we want a breakfast burrito.
 
In January 2009 King County, Washington imposed mandatory menu labeling on all restaurant chains in the region, which includes Seattle and its surrounds. Restaurants were asked to disclose nutrition information, including a calorie count, about every item on the menu.
 
Then, over the next year, researchers in conjunction with local public health officials monitored food purchases at the Taco Time chain of restaurants. And they found that nothing changed. The total number of sales and the average calories per order were the same, regardless of whether the restaurant labeled its menu. The study appears in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine. [citation to come]
 
Now, it could be that Taco Time customers were already wise to the relative nutritiousness of their meals, because the restaurant was highlighting its healthier options with a little logo before the law took effect.
 
So maybe all we need is a happy, "healthy icon" to keep us from overdoing it. Because pointing out that a large order of cheddar fries has 700 calories was not food for thought.
 
—Karen Hopkin

Back in the late 90s a team at the University of Kentucky performed a series of long-term studies on nuns.
Ещё в конце 1990-ых годоа группа учёных из Университета Кентукки провела ряд долгосрочных исследований с монахинями


 And these studies have uncovered some surprising clues for possible Alzheimer’s risk.
И эти исследования открыли удивительный ключ к возможному пониманию причин склонности к болезни Альцгеймера


One of these studies, published in the Annals New York Academy of Sciences, found that poor linguistic ability early in life is associated with a risk of developing dementia later on. 
Одно из исследований, опубликованное в Анналах академии наук Нью-Йорка, обнаружило, что неспособность к языкам в детстве связана с риском слабоумия в старческом возрасте


Researchers got their hands on archival autobiographical sketches written by 74 nuns, from Baltimore and Milwaukee, completed between ages 19 and 37 years.
Исследователи изучили архивные автобиографические наброски 74 монахинь из Балтимора и Милуоки, написанные ими в возрасте 19-37 лет


 All died an average of 62 years after writing their sketches, and the nuns had agreed to donate their brains for study.
Все они умерли в среднем через 62 года после написания этих набросков и согласились, чтобы после смерти их мозг изучили учёные


Here is what scientists found:   The number of ideas expressed in those autobiographies had a inverse association with the severity of dementia later in life.
И вот что учёные обнаружили: количество идей, выраженных в автобиографиях, находилось в обратном соотношении со степенью слабоумия монахинь в конце жизни


 For instance in the sentence, “I was born in Eau Claire, Wisconsin, on May 24, 1913, and was baptized in a church,” has seven ideas according to the researchers.
Например, в предложении: "Я родилась в г.О-Клэр, штат Висконсин, 24 мая 1913г. и была крещена в церкви" выражены 7 идей, согласно учёным


Phrases like “I was born” and “I was baptized in church” all count toward what they call a measurement of “idea density.”
Выражения "я родилась" и "была крещена в церкви" учитываются в так называемом измерении "плотности идей"


They found a strong association between those whose autobiographies had low idea density and presence of the Alzheimer-related tangles in the frontal, temporal or parietal lobe of the brain. 
Учёные нашли сильную связь между низкой плотностью идей в автобиографии и наличием в передней, височной и теменной долях мозга сплетений (клеток), характерных для болезни Альцгеймера


Studies like this point to the possibility of detecting Alzheimer risk much earlier in life and may provide clues to the progression of the illness long before the more serious cognitive damage takes hold.
Подобные исследоваания указывают на возможность раннего обнаружения риска заболеть болезнью Альцгеймера и могут свидетельствовать о прогрессе болезни задолго до того, как она нанесёт серьёзный ущерб умственным способностям


—Christie Nicholson

 

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